Chapter 9 Case study: word play
9.1 Reading word lists
For the exercises in this chapter we need a list of English words. There are lots of word lists available on the Web, but the one most suitable for our purpose is one of the word lists collected and contributed to the public domain by Grady Ward as part of the Moby lexicon project1. It is a list of 113,809 official crosswords; that is, words that are considered valid in crossword puzzles and other word games. In the Moby collection, the filename is 113809of.fic; I include a copy of this file, with the simpler name words.txt, along with Swampy.
This file is in plain text, so you can open it with a text editor, but you can also read it from Python. The built-in function open takes the name of the file as a parameter and returns a file object you can use to read the file.
>>> fin = open('words.txt') >>> print fin <open file 'words.txt', mode 'r' at 0xb7f4b380>
fin is a common name for a file object used for
The file object provides several methods for reading, including readline, which reads characters from the file until it gets to a newline and returns the result as a string:
>>> fin.readline() 'aa\r\n'
The first word in this particular list is “aa,” which is a kind of
lava. The sequence
The file object keeps track of where it is in the file, so if you call readline again, you get the next word:
>>> fin.readline() 'aah\r\n'
The next word is “aah,” which is a perfectly legitimate word, so stop looking at me like that. Or, if it’s the whitespace that’s bothering you, we can get rid of it with the string method strip:
>>> line = fin.readline() >>> word = line.strip() >>> print word aahed
You can also use a file object as part of a for loop. This program reads words.txt and prints each word, one per line:
fin = open('words.txt') for line in fin: word = line.strip() print word
Exercise 1 Write a program that reads words.txt and prints only the words with more than 20 characters (not counting whitespace).
There are solutions to these exercises in the next section. You should at least attempt each one before you read the solutions.
Exercise 2 In 1939 Ernest Vincent Wright published a 50,000 word novel called Gadsby that does not contain the letter “e.” Since “e” is the most common letter in English, that’s not easy to do.
In fact, it is difficult to construct a solitary thought without using that most common symbol. It is slow going at first, but with caution and hours of training you can gradually gain facility.
All right, I’ll stop now.
Write a function called
Modify your program from the previous section to print only the words that have no “e” and compute the percentage of the words in the list have no “e.”
Exercise 3 Write a function named avoids that takes a word and a string of forbidden letters, and that returns True if the word doesn’t use any of the forbidden letters.
Modify your program to prompt the user to enter a string of forbidden letters and then print the number of words that don’t contain any of them. Can you find a combination of 5 forbidden letters that excludes the smallest number of words?
Exercise 4 Write a function named
Exercise 5 Write a function named
Exercise 6 Write a function called
All of the exercises in the previous section have something in common; they can be solved with the search pattern we saw in Section 8.6. The simplest example is:
def has_no_e(word): for letter in word: if letter == 'e': return False return True
The for loop traverses the characters in word. If we find the letter “e”, we can immediately return False; otherwise we have to go to the next letter. If we exit the loop normally, that means we didn’t find an “e”, so we return True.
avoids is a more general version of
def avoids(word, forbidden): for letter in word: if letter in forbidden: return False return True
We can return False as soon as we find a forbidden letter; if we get to the end of the loop, we return True.
def uses_only(word, available): for letter in word: if letter not in available: return False return True
Instead of a list of forbidden letters, we have a list of available letters. If we find a letter in word that is not in available, we can return False.
def uses_all(word, required): for letter in required: if letter not in word: return False return True
Instead of traversing the letters in word, the loop traverses the required letters. If any of the required letters do not appear in the word, we can return False.
If you were really thinking like a computer scientist, you would
have recognized that
def uses_all(word, required): return uses_only(required, word)
This is an example of a program development method called problem recognition, which means that you recognize the problem you are working on as an instance of a previously-solved problem, and apply a previously-developed solution.
9.4 Looping with indices
I wrote the functions in the previous section with for loops because I only needed the characters in the strings; I didn’t have to do anything with the indices.
def is_abecedarian(word): previous = word for c in word: if c < previous: return False previous = c return True
An alternative is to use recursion:
def is_abecedarian(word): if len(word) <= 1: return True if word > word: return False return is_abecedarian(word[1:])
Another option is to use a while loop:
def is_abecedarian(word): i = 0 while i < len(word)-1: if word[i+1] < word[i]: return False i = i+1 return True
The loop starts at i=0 and ends when i=len(word)-1. Each time through the loop, it compares the ith character (which you can think of as the current character) to the i+1th character (which you can think of as the next).
If the next character is less than (alphabetically before) the current one, then we have discovered a break in the abecedarian trend, and we return False.
If we get to the end of the loop without finding a fault, then the
word passes the test. To convince yourself that the loop ends
correctly, consider an example like
Here is a version of
def is_palindrome(word): i = 0 j = len(word)-1 while i<j: if word[i] != word[j]: return False i = i+1 j = j-1 return True
Or, if you noticed that this is an instance of a previously-solved problem, you might have written:
def is_palindrome(word): return is_reverse(word, word)
Assuming you did Exercise 8.8.
Testing programs is hard. The functions in this chapter are relatively easy to test because you can check the results by hand. Even so, it is somewhere between difficult and impossible to choose a set of words that test for all possible errors.
Within each case, there are some less obvious subcases. Among the words that have an “e,” you should test words with an “e” at the beginning, the end, and somewhere in the middle. You should test long words, short words, and very short words, like the empty string. The empty string is an example of a special case, which is one of the non-obvious cases where errors often lurk.
In addition to the test cases you generate, you can also test your program with a word list like words.txt. By scanning the output, you might be able to catch errors, but be careful: you might catch one kind of error (words that should not be included, but are) and not another (words that should be included, but aren’t).
In general, testing can help you find bugs, but it is not easy to generate a good set of test cases, and even if you do, you can’t be sure your program is correct.
According to a legendary computer scientist:
Program testing can be used to show the presence of bugs, but never to show their absence!
This question is based on a Puzzler that was broadcast on the radio program Car Talk2:
Give me a word with three consecutive double letters. I’ll give you a couple of words that almost qualify, but don’t. For example, the word committee, c-o-m-m-i-t-t-e-e. It would be great except for the ‘i’ that sneaks in there. Or Mississippi: M-i-s-s-i-s-s-i-p-p-i. If you could take out those i’s it would work. But there is a word that has three consecutive pairs of letters and to the best of my knowledge this may be the only word. Of course there are probably 500 more but I can only think of one. What is the word?
Write a program to find it. You can see my solution at thinkpython.com/code/cartalk.py.
Exercise 8 Here’s another Car Talk Puzzler3:
“I was driving on the highway the other day and I happened to notice my odometer. Like most odometers, it shows six digits, in whole miles only. So, if my car had 300,000 miles, for example, I’d see 3-0-0-0-0-0.
Write a Python program that tests all the six-digit numbers and prints any numbers that satisfy these requirements. You can see my solution at thinkpython.com/code/cartalk.py.
Exercise 9 Here’s another Car Talk Puzzler you can solve with a search4:
“Recently I had a visit with my mom and we realized that the two digits that make up my age when reversed resulted in her age. For example, if she’s 73, I’m 37. We wondered how often this has happened over the years but we got sidetracked with other topics and we never came up with an answer.
Write a Python program that searches for solutions to this Puzzler. Hint: you might find the string method zfill useful.
You can see my solution at thinkpython.com/code/cartalk.py.
Are you using one of our books in a class?We'd like to know about it. Please consider filling out this short survey.