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Appendix BCreating a new data typeObjectoriented programming languages allow programmers to create new data types that behave much like builtin data types. We will explore this capability by building a Fraction class that works very much like the builtin numeric types: integers, longs and floats. Fractions, also known as rational numbers, are values that can be expressed as a ratio of whole numbers, such as 5/6. The top number is called the numerator and the bottom number is called the denominator. We start by defining a Fraction class with an initialization method that provides the numerator and denominator as integers: class Fraction:
The denominator is optional. A Fraction with just one parameter represents a whole number. If the numerator is n, we build the Fraction n/1. The next step is to write a __str__ method that displays fractions in a way that makes sense. The form "numerator/denominator" is natural here: class Fraction:
To test what we have so far, we put it in a file named Fraction.py and import it into the Python interpreter. Then we create a fraction object and print it. >>> from Fraction import Fraction
As usual, the print command invokes the __str__ method implicitly. Fraction multiplicationWe would like to be able to apply the normal addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division operations to fractions. To do this, we can overload the mathematical operators for Fraction objects. We'll start with multiplication because it is the easiest to implement. To multiply fractions, we create a new fraction with a numerator that is the product of the original numerators and a denominator that is a product of the original denominators. __mul__ is the name Python uses for a method that overloads the * operator: class Fraction:
We can test this method by computing the product of two fractions: >>> print Fraction(5,6) * Fraction(3,4)
It works, but we can do better! We can extend the method to handle multiplication by an integer. We use the isinstance function to test if other is an integer and convert it to a fraction if it is. class Fraction:
Multiplying fractions and integers now works, but only if the fraction is the left operand: >>> print Fraction(5,6) * 4
To evaluate a binary operator like multiplication, Python checks the left operand first to see if it provides a __mul__ that supports the type of the second operand. In this case, the builtin integer operator doesn't support fractions. Next, Python checks the right operand to see if it provides an __rmul__ method that supports the first type. In this case, we haven't provided __rmul__, so it fails. On the other hand, there is a simple way to provide __rmul__: class Fraction:
This assignment says that the __rmul__ is the same as __mul__. Now if we evaluate 4 * Fraction(5,6), Python invokes __rmul__ on the Fraction object and passes 4 as a parameter: >>> print 4 * Fraction(5,6)
Since __rmul__ is the same as __mul__, and __mul__ can handle an integer parameter, we're all set. Fraction additionAddition is more complicated than multiplication, but still not too bad. The sum of a/b and c/d is the fraction (a*d+c*b)/(b*d). Using the multiplication code as a model, we can write __add__ and __radd__: class Fraction:
We can test these methods with Fractions and integers. >>> print Fraction(5,6) + Fraction(5,6)
The first two examples invoke __add__; the last invokes __radd__. Euclid's algorithmIn the previous example, we computed the sum 5/6 + 5/6 and got 60/36. That is correct, but it's not the best way to represent the answer. To reduce the fraction to its simplest terms, we have to divide the numerator and denominator by their greatest common divisor (GCD), which is 12. The result is 5/3. In general, whenever we create a new Fraction object, we should reduce it by dividing the numerator and denominator by their GCD. If the fraction is already reduced, the GCD is 1. Euclid of Alexandria (approx. 325265 BCE) presented an algorithm to find the GCD for two integers m and n: If n divides m evenly, then n is the GCD. Otherwise the GCD is the GCD of n and the remainder of m divided by n. This recursive definition can be expressed concisely as a function: def gcd (m, n):
In the first line of the body, we use the modulus operator to check divisibility. On the last line, we use it to compute the remainder after division. Since all the operations we've written create new Fractions for the result, we can reduce all results by modifying the initialization method. class Fraction:
Now whenever we create a Fraction, it is reduced to its simplest form: >>> Fraction(100,36)
A nice feature of gcd is that if the fraction is negative, the minus sign is always moved to the numerator. Comparing fractionsSuppose we have two Fraction objects, a and b, and we evaluate a == b. The default implementation of == tests for shallow equality, so it only returns true if a and b are the same object.
More likely, we want to return true if a and b have
the same value We have to teach fractions how to compare themselves. As we saw in Section 15.4, we can overload all the comparison operators at once by supplying a __cmp__ method. By convention, the __cmp__ method returns a negative number if self is less than other, zero if they are the same, and a positive number if self is greater than other. The simplest way to compare fractions is to crossmultiply. If a/b > c/d, then ad > bc. With that in mind, here is the code for __cmp__: class Fraction:
If self is greater than other, then diff will be positive. If other is greater, then diff will be negative. If they are the same, diff is zero. Taking it furtherOf course, we are not done. We still have to implement subtraction by overriding __sub__ and division by overriding __div__. One way to handle those operations is to implement negation by overriding __neg__ and inversion by overriding __invert__. Then we can subtract by negating the second operand and adding, and we can divide by inverting the second operand and multiplying. Next, we have to provide __rsub__ and __rdiv__. Unfortunately, we can't use the same trick we used for addition and multiplication, because subtraction and division are not commutative. We can't just set __rsub__ and __rdiv__ equal to __sub__ and __div__. In these operations, the order of the operands makes a difference. To handle unary negation, which is the use of the minus sign with a single operand, we override __neg__. We can compute powers by overriding __pow__, but the implementation is a little tricky. If the exponent isn't an integer, then it may not be possible to represent the result as a Fraction. For example, Fraction(2) ** Fraction(1,2) is the square root of 2, which is an irrational number (it can't be represented as a fraction). So it's not easy to write the most general version of __pow__. There is one other extension to the Fraction class that you might want to think about. So far, we have assumed that the numerator and denominator are integers. As an exercise, finish the implementation of the Fraction class so that it handles subtraction, division and exponentiation. Glossary
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